What is Inulin?

Inulin: What Is It and Why You Want it In Your Diet

If you don’t know what inulin is, you have lots of company. Inulin is a particularly beneficial prebiotic fiber. It is found in high concentrations in chicory root and Jerusalem artichokes. Inulin also occurs in leeks, asparagus, onions, wheat, garlic, oats and soybeans. Over the past few years, it’s been getting more mentions in health literature and articles, due to a growing body of clinical evidence showing the many benefits that this important prebiotic offers.

Prebiotics, as may know, are important to the body. They are the food and support system for the vast array of friendly and vitally important bacteria in your digestive tract. By consuming more prebiotics, both from food sources and in supplement form, you can help increase the number of good gut bacteria. You also get a whole lot of other benefits directly from the prebiotic fibers.

High quality prebiotic fibers like inulin provide numerous systemic benefits to the body. Inulin fibers and whole food sources very rich in them, like chicory root and Jerusalem artichoke can help improve regularity, lower blood sugar and fat levels, and help with weight loss. They also can help lower the risk of colorectal cancer and keep the intestinal lining healthy, alleviating “leaky gut syndrome” a chronic inflammation of the intestinal lining.

Clinical research shows that one way high-quality prebiotic fibers like inulin help is through a fermentation process in the colon that produces Short-Chain Fatty Acids (“SCFA”). SCFAs inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria and stimulate the growth of Lactobacilli bacteria and Bifidobacteria in the intestinal tract.

This boost in the production of SCFAs has been shown to help reduce digestive discomfort and with constipation. One key SCFA, acetate, seems to help suppress inflammation and keep the intestinal lining healthy. This benefit is now established enough from clinical research, that the European Food Safety Association, the European equivalent of the FDA, has approved the labeling claim that consuming inulin eases constipation.

Another key SCFA that inulin helps boost is butyrate, which has been linked to helping lower the risk of colorectal cancer. Boosting the production of SCFAs also helps increase the absorption of essential minerals like calcium.

The potential benefits of inulin in helping control blood sugars have been shown in multiple clinical trials. A meta-analysis of 33 clinical trials testing the effects of inulin on glycemic indicators (i.e. the effects of inulin on blood sugar), found that inulin supplementation helped to significantly reduce the four main glycemic indicators tested for. This is of particular interest to those who are Type 2 diabetic or pre-diabetic.

Another important potential benefit of inulin in today’s weight conscious world is that it can play a positive role in appetite control, which in turn can help with weight control. A weight-loss study of involving 44 pre-diabetic people conducted under the guidance of a dietician, found that those in the group taking inulin supplements for 18 weeks had a weight loss of 7.6 percent of body weight, compared with a weight loss of 4.9 percent in the group taking cellulose, another type of fiber.

While a healthy diet that includes plenty of vegetables, fruits, nuts and whole grains should provide a rich source of essential prebiotic fibers, nutritional supplements can play a key role.

This is why we include a generous helping of whole food inulin prebiotic fiber from whole food chicory root and Jerusalem artichoke in our popular probiotic products (FEM PRO for women and our Broad Pro 60 Billion Daily Probiotic for men and women). Along with all the potential great benefits of inulin, including it with the probiotics gives you peace of mind that they will be better absorbed by your body.

REFERENCES:

  1. Meta-Analysis of 33 Randomized Trials, 2019:
    Inulin-type fructans supplementation improves glycemic control for the prediabetes and type 2 diabetes populations: results from a GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trials
    Long Wang, et al
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896694/
  2. Effect of inulin-type fructans on blood lipid profile and glucose level: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials 2016
    F Liu, et al
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27623982/
  3. Prebiotics Reduce Body Fat and Alter Intestinal Microbiota in Children Who Are Overweight or With Obesity 2017
    Alissa C Nicolucci, et al
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28596023/
  4. Effects of high performance inulin supplementation on glycemic status and lipid profile in women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial 2013
    Parvin Dehghan, et al
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24688953/
  5. Young Adolescents Who Respond to an Inulin-Type Fructan Substantially Increase Total Absorbed Calcium and Daily Calcium Accretion to the Skeleton 2007
    Steven A Abrams
    https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/137/11/2524S/4664499
  6. A randomized controlled trial: the effect of inulin on weight management and ectopic fat in subjects with prediabetes 2015
    Nicola D Guess, et al
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26500686/
  7. Changes in stool frequency following chicory inulin consumption, and effects on stool consistency, quality of life and composition of gut microbiota 2019
    Anthony W Watson, et al
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686634/
  8. Health Effects and Sources of Prebiotic Dietary Fiber 2018
    Justin L Carlson, et al
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6041804/
  9. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits 2013
    Joanne Slavin
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705355/
  10. Inulin-enriched pasta affects lipid profile and Lp(a) concentrations in Italian young healthy male volunteers 2008
    Francesco Russo, et al
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18853230/

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THE 15 TOP CLINICALLY STUDIED PROBIOTIC STRAINS IN DOCTORS PICK BROAD PRO

(References at bottom of page: Most studies cited here were conducted on humans; only a relatively few listed involve lab animals.)
Doctors Pick BROAD PRO brings the best science has to offer

References:

 

Lactobacillus Acidophilus
  1. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-drug/def/probiotic-acidophilus
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8551535
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4847857/
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23747589
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10067658
  6. https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(10)00545-X/fulltext
  7. https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(14)60601-7/fulltext

 

Lactobacillus Bulgaricus
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705123/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986509
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20487575
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22923109
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2680912/
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4475728/
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8432622
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10660098
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/597607
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3564372

 

Lactobacillus Casei:
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26419583
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26689231
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24673738
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20838859
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21810608
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26672414
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22505595
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3743185/
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4744000/
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23992486
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21329565
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3858332/
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160870/#B55

 

Lactobacillus Fermentum:
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2670518/
  2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jsfa.4214
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21218486
  4. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0899900707000111?via%3Dihub
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27447674
  6. https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/328512
  7. https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/44/4/222

 

Lactobacillus Gasseri:

38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20216555

  1. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/effect-of-lactobacillus-gasseri-sbt2055-in-fermented-milk-on-abdominal-adiposity-in-adults-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial/304E3E2EE11E0D3D4F5D85E7046118A1
  2. Kadooka Y et al. Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 in fermented milk on abdominal adiposity in adults in a randomized controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2013 Nov 14;110(9):1696-703.Epub 2013 Apr 25
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391304/
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3611107/
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391304/
  6. Miyoshi M et al. Anti-obesity effect of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 accompanied by inhibition of pro-inflammatory gene expression in the visceral adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice.Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(2):599-606. doi: 10.1007/s00394-013-0568-9. Epub 2013 Aug 6.
  7. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00203-015-1101-8
  8. https://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/10.3920/BM2014.0108

 

Lactobacillus Plantarum:
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594053/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3419998/
  3. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304663353_Immunomodulatory_Effects_of_Lactobacillus_plantarum_Lp62_on_Intestinal_Epithelial_and_Mononuclear_Cells
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598393
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26620542
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4882673/
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4936756/

 

Lactobacillus Reuteri:
  1. https://www.nature.com/articles/ejcn2012126
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22067612
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5917019/
  4. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2009.00154.x
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25688886
  6. https://www.nature.com/articles/ejcn2012126
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25531996
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15629974
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3813596/
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2219330/
  11. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/beneficial-bacteria-stimulate-youthful-thyroid-gland-activity-2165-7904.1000220.php?aid=26919
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19895848

 

Lactobacillus Rhamnosus:
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155824/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24299712
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26365389
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21899584
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844131/
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22692023
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22552453
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27596801
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23957340
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22702506
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26142892
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23740456

 

Bifidobacterium Breve:
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15491374
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1720633/
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3048518/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12598719
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16819382
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27590263
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15269618
  3. https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/93/1/81/4597712
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5084046/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034291/
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4965514/

 

Bifidobacterium Coagulans:
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25079465
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24271261
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2079358
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2086441
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23786900
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26430929
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24706266
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25196301
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2826289/
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4947834/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25219857
  3. https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/145/7/1446/4589930
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2784472/
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4285933/
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4443394/
  7. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09168451.2014.972331
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724383/
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4769834/
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20140275
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19332970
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4129566/
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24867512
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3460128/

 

Bifidobacterium infantis:
  1. https://www.nature.com/articles/pr2004591
  2. https://academic.oup.com/femspd/article/66/3/353/577227
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23192454
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20460726
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17189085
  3. https://gut.bmj.com/content/61/3/354
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744517/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744517/
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1774839/
  4. https://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47306-0#tab2
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17893165
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19291170
  7. https://academic.oup.com/femspd/article/55/3/324/496928
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17259812
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16689181
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4997396/
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19367213
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16863564
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26418574
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25794930

 

Bifidobacterium Lactis (Note: was called “Bifidobacterium animalis in older studies”):
  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S089990071500461X?via%3Dihub
  2. https://www.nature.com/articles/pr2008218?proof=true&draft=journal
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18801055
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3265429/
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16794305
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19236549
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3171707/
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268077
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19622191
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877827/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15076628
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25599772
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15815206
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24322191
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2761588/
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22284965
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17635382
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18801055

 

Bifidobacterium Longum:

151.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15347767

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23192454
  2. https://academic.oup.com/femspd/article/66/3/353/577227
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22052061
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20460726
  5. https://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47306-0
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19291170
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17259812
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24774670
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12906063
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16863564
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19367213

 

Saccharomyces Boulardii:
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3296087/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25653151
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15858959
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125647/
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2829915/
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21997865
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18256417
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17306006
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27283364
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22476321
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22335323
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26216624
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7872284
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24311316
  15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15740542
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16572062
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15357564
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2494098
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7872284
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7872284

 

Streptococcus Thermophilus:
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14627358
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034325/
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4526857/

 

Clinical Trial References for FEM PRO Formulation

At Doctors Pick, we only formulate nutritional products based on solid clinical evidence of potential benefits to you. Below is a list of the clinical trials, almost all on human participants, used as the basis for formulating FEM PRO.

References

Lactobacillus Acidophilus
1. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-drug/def/probiotic-acidophilus
2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8551535
3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4847857/
4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23747589
5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10067658
6. https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(10)00545-X/fulltext
7. https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(14)60601-7/fulltext

Lactobacillus Bulgaricus
8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705123/
9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986509
10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20487575
11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22923109
12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2680912/
13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4475728/
14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8432622
15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10660098
16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/597607
17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3564372

Lactobacillus Casei:
18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26419583
19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26689231
20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24673738
21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20838859
22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21810608
23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26672414
24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22505595
25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3743185/
26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4744000/
26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23992486
28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21329565
29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3858332/
30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160870/#B55

Lactobacillus Fermentum:
31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2670518/
32. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jsfa.4214
33. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21218486
34. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0899900707000111?via%3Dihub
35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27447674
36. https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/328512
37. https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/44/4/222

Lactobacillus Gasseri:
38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20216555
39. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/effect-of-lactobacillus-gasseri-sbt2055-in-fermented-milk-on-abdominal-adiposity-in-adults-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial/304E3E2EE11E0D3D4F5D85E7046118A1
40. Kadooka Y et al. Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 in fermented milk on abdominal adiposity in adults in a randomized controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2013 Nov 14;110(9):1696-703.Epub 2013 Apr 25
41. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391304/
42. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3611107/
43. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391304/
44. Miyoshi M et al. Anti-obesity effect of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 accompanied by inhibition of pro-inflammatory gene expression in the visceral adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice.Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(2):599-606. doi: 10.1007/s00394-013-0568-9. Epub 2013 Aug 6.
45. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00203-015-1101-8
46. https://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/10.3920/BM2014.0108

Lactobacillus Helveticus:
47. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20974015
48. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282244005_Administration_of_Lactobacillus_helveticus_NS8_improves_behavioral_cognitive_and_biochemical_aberrations_caused_by_chronic_restraint_stress

Lactobacillus Plantarum:
49. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594053/
50. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3419998/
51. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304663353_Immunomodulatory_Effects_of_Lactobacillus_plantarum_Lp62_on_Intestinal_Epithelial_and_Mononuclear_Cells
52. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598393
53. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26620542
54. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4882673/
55. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4936756/

Lactobacillus Reuteri:
56. https://www.nature.com/articles/ejcn2012126
57. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22067612
58. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5917019/
59. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2009.00154.x
60. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25688886
61. https://www.nature.com/articles/ejcn2012126
62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25531996
63. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15629974
64. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3813596/
65. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2219330/
66. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/beneficial-bacteria-stimulate-youthful-thyroid-gland-activity-2165-7904.1000220.php?aid=26919
67. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19895848

Lactobacillus Rhamnosus:
68. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155824/
69. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24299712
70. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4239510/
71. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26365389
72. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21899584
73. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844131/
74. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22692023
75. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22552453
76. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27596801
77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23957340
78. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22702506
79. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26142892
80. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23740456

Bifidobacterium bifidum:
81. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27219886
82. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27681077
83. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28786012
84. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28326881
85. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3305430/
86. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27209439
87. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25604727
88. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17878180
89. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25909149
90. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133134/
91. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22205338
92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648808
93. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6570661/
94. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244414
95. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2630703/
96. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15829425
97. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27623957
98. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1597660
99. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21418261
100. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18785988
101. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2874795/

Bifidobacterium Breve:
102. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15491374
103. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1720633/
104. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3048518/
105. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12598719
106. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16819382
107. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27590263
108. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15269618
109. https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/93/1/81/4597712
110. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5084046/
111. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034291/
112. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4965514/

Bifidobacterium Coagulans:
113. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25079465
114. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24271261
115. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2079358
116. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2086441
117. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23786900
118. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26430929
119. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24706266
120. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25196301
121. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2826289/
122. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4947834/
123. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25219857
124. https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/145/7/1446/4589930
125. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2784472/
126. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4285933/
127. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4443394/
128. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09168451.2014.972331
129. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724383/
130. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4769834/
131. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20140275
132. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19332970
133. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4129566/
134. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24867512
135. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3460128/

Bifidobacterium infantis:
136. https://www.nature.com/articles/pr2004591
137. https://academic.oup.com/femspd/article/66/3/353/577227
138. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23192454
139. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20460726
140. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17189085
141. https://gut.bmj.com/content/61/3/354
142. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744517/
143. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744517/
144. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1774839/
145. https://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47306-0#tab2
146. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17893165
147. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19291170
148. https://academic.oup.com/femspd/article/55/3/324/496928
149. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17259812
150. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16689181
151. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4997396/
152. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19367213
153. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16863564
154. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26418574
155. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25794930

Bifidobacterium Lactis (Note: was called “Bifidobacterium animalis in older studies”):
156. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S089990071500461X?via%3Dihub
157. https://www.nature.com/articles/pr2008218?proof=true&draft=journal
158. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18801055
159. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3265429/
160. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16794305
161. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19236549
162. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3171707/
163. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268077
164. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19622191
165. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877827/
166. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15076628
167. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25599772
168. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15815206
169. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24322191
170. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2761588/
171. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22284965
172. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17635382
173. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18801055

Bifidobacterium Longum:
174. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15347767
175. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23192454
176. https://academic.oup.com/femspd/article/66/3/353/577227
177. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22052061
178. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20460726
178. https://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47306-0
180. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19291170
181. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17259812
182. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24774670
183. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12906063
184. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16863564
185. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19367213

Bacillus Subtilis:
186. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23328284
187. https://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmmcr/10.1099/jmmcr.0.004036
188. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.12.078

Saccharomyces Boulardii:
189. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3296087/
190. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25653151
191. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15858959
192. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125647/
193. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2829915/
194. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21997865
195. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18256417
196. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17306006
197. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27283364
198. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22476321
199. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22335323
200. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26216624
201. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7872284
202. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24311316
203. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15740542
204. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16572062
205. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15357564
206. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2494098
207. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7872284
208. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00256/full

Saffron:
209: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4599112/
210: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4643654/
211. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595298
212. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15707766
213. https://obgyn.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2007.01652.x
214. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19720342
215. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20831681
216. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19838862
217. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941716/
218. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850693/
219. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20688744
220. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30343354

Inubio™ Prebiotic Ingredients—Inulin, Chicory Root & Jerusalem Artichoke:
221. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686634/
222. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28596023?dopt=Abstract
223. ttps://academic.oup.com/jn/search-results?f_TocHeadingTitle=Inulin%20and%20Oligofructose:%20Health%20Benefits%20and%20Claims-A%20Critical%20Review
224. https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/137/11/2524S/4664499
225. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705355/
226. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896694/
227. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24688953
228. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18853230
229. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27623982
230. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6041804/